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**Why do 🐢turtles live so long?
**There's an evolutionary answer and a biological answer to this question.
✔️The evolutionary answer is relatively straightforward: some natural enemies of turtles, like snakes🐍, birds🦅 and raccoons🦝, love to eat turtle eggs. To pass on their genes, turtles have to live a long time and breed frequently, sometimes multiple times per year, laying a lot of eggs.
✔️As far as the biological answer is concerned, scientists consider that giant tortoises and a few other turtle species seem to be able to protect themselves from the long-term effects of cell damage. They do this by quickly killing off damaged cells, using a process called apoptosis, or programmed cell death.
✔️It is particularly a fact that turtles exhibit a lower rate of telomere shortening compared with shorter-lived animals. This means turtles are more resistant to certain kinds of damage that can arise from DNA-replication errors.
**Who is the world’s oldest living land animal?
**🐢His name is Jonathan, and he's a Seychelles giant tortoise (Aldabrachelys gigantea hololissa).
Jonathan is estimated to have been born in 1832, which means he turned, or turns, 190 years old in 2022.
This 190-year-old tortoise is in combination the oldest tortoise ever beating the previous record of Tu'i Malila, a radiated tortoise (Astrochelys radiata) that lived to at least 188 years old before dying in 1965.
❗️Jonathan lives on St. Helena, an island in the South Atlantic Ocean, where he arrived in 1882 when he was about 50 years old.
‼️A photograph of Jonathan dated between 1882 and 1886 shows him fully grown, which suggests he was at least 50 years old when it was taken, so he could be older than 190 years today.
**What is the map of the world according to population density?
**Based on the data from the Gridded Population of the World collection (GPWv4) which models human population based on census reports, and the United Nation's World Population Prospects report, here is ‘The Humanity Globe' - an awesome visualization showing the world according to population density.
**How many hours of sleep are people losing because of climate change?
**Danish researchers analyzed data from sleep-tracking wristbands used by 48,000 people in 68 countries between 2015 and 2017.
They then paired the sleep data with local weather data, revealing that unusually hot nights are causing people to fall asleep later, rise earlier and sleep less.
❗️The evidence suggests that people are losing an average of 44 hours of sleep each year.
By 2100, the researchers estimate people will lose 58 hours of sleep a year if emissions go unchecked. In a lower-emissions future, the figure drops to 50 hours.
How could a prehistoric domestic dog look like?🤔
The Muge dog is one of the oldest almost complete dog skeletons recovered from the Muge shell middens, Portugal, in the 19th century.
Using modern technologies that take into account combined anatomical, veterinary, zooarchaeological, artistic and graphic aspects, researchers managed to to reconstruct the Muge dog’s head appearance.
The importance in reconstructing the face of one of these Mesolithic dogs is its antiquity (c. 7600 years cal BP), its completeness (almost complete skeleton) and its burial context, e.g. found within a human burial ground, at a depth of 4 m. The dog skeleton was very well preserved, likely meaning that it was buried by humans with care, which is interpreted as a strong emotional bond between humans and their dogs.